Atoms and Molecules
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|Reactions - Reaction Types|
Single replacement reactions, or single displacement reactions, describe reactions in which a more active element replaces a less active element in a compound. Single replacement reactions produce a new compound and an element as products. All single replacement reactions are oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions.
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An element replaces or displaces another element from a compound.
The most common types of single-displacement reactions include:
1. A more metallic metal (higher on the metal activity series) displacing another metal in a compound.
2. A metal atom displacing a hydrogen atom in water or an acid.
|*Metal Activity Series2, 3|
|Most||Li||These metals will replace hydrogen gas from water|
|Mg||These metals will replace hydrogen gas from acids|
|H2||Not a metal|
|Cu||These metals will not replace hydrogen gas from water or acids|
|*Based on hydrogen standard|
|Nonmetal Activity Series5|
Real World Application
Discover processes or disciplines in the natural or man-made worlds that employ the concept.
In the steel industry, coke (a kind of coal) is used to replace iron out of ferric oxide.
Another example is the Statue of Liberty, which has copper on the outside and iron as inner support. As time goes by, copper starts to react with air and form a verdigris coat; meanwhile, a single replacement reaction between iron and verdigris takes place so that verdigris on the outside is replaced back to copper but the iron support is oxidized and rusted. As a result, the entire inner support of the Statue of Liberty had to be replaced in the 1980s.
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|Single replacement reactions||
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Students requiring adaptations to gain the full benefit of a demonstration may find a worksheet with guided observations useful. Alternatively, a teacher may wish to use a worksheet with guided observations to model what observations all students should be making during a demonstration.
The Demonstration Observation Worksheet is available in
Sodium in Water
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"Chemistry-Dictionary.com." Chemistry Dictionary / Glossary! Everyone's Online Source for Chemistry Terms and Definitions. Chemistry-Dictionary.com. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. . (vocabulary definition)
Birk, James P. "Chemical Reactions." Chemistry: Foundations and Applications. Advameg, Inc., 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2010. . (reaction type descriptions)
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8.
Morgan, Stephen L. "Solubility Rules! Guidelines for Chemical Compound Solubility." USC Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry. University of South Carolina. Web. 12 Nov. 2010. .(Solubility Rules)
"Reference Tables for Physical Setting/CHEMISTRY." New York Science Teacher. The University of The State of New York, The State Education Department, 2002. Web. 12 Nov 2010. . (Solubility rules, Metal and Nonmetal activity series tables)
Raach, John. "Statue of Liberty Facts: July 4th Reopening and More." Daily Nature and Science News and Headlines | National Geographic News. 2 July 2009. Web. 18 Feb. 2011.(Real World Application)